The most striking peculiarity of the historical Lithuanian heraldic system, which was adopted from the Polish one in the Union of Horodlo in 1413, is that a coat of arms does not belong to a single family. Moreover, some ordinary words are today used as names (e.g. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. Only a few borrowed words, like taksì – taxi, tabù – taboo, kupė̃ – compartment (in a train), coupé, are not subject to declension. Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle name being considered pretentious. -ois and Lithuanian pl. The word didis has more mingled forms: nominative is sometimes didus; genitive masc. The ending -i (f., sg. Children are often named in honor of the most revered historical Lithuanian rulers; these are some of the most popular names. dat. Unlike nouns, which have two genders – masculine and feminine – adjectives have three (except -is, -ė adjectives), but the neuter adjectives (the third example in the table) have only one uninflected form. Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle namebeing considered pretentious. butas – flat, living place, Prus. And a normal form: mažas princas 'a little prince'. A drop can similarly occur in other languages, for example: Lith. A word brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative broli has also a form brolaũ. Males can have their surnames appended with: -as, -is, -ys, -us, -e or -a. and dideliems in pl. kaimas – village, kiemas – yard). For female names this may be -elė, -utė, -ytė, or -užė; certain suffixes are more common to specific names over the rest. Main pattern for feminine nouns; few masculine exceptions. Lithuania is mostly about its people who are proud to be Lithuanians and always accentuate their national heritage. ), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. The first declension. Such use like akmenas, akmeno; dančio; šunio; rudenio; is a clear mistake and is not accepted. nom. Note, that the word pats is declined only in masculine in this table. The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. Its feminine form pati is declined with the o-paradigm regularly. Consequently, the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives. Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine plural (as they're plural only) are: Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine singular are: Some cardinal numbers have their specific paradigms: part of nouns of the second declension (that end with, adjectives of the third declension (their feminine forms), nouns of the third declension, which are mostly feminine (, nouns of the fifth declension, which are mostly masculine (. The only difference in masculine and feminine nouns of this declension is between the dative singular forms. A case of petys, pečio instead of petys, peties is also a mistake, but petys is the only one -ys (instead of -is) form declined in the third declension and consequentely tends to be declined like all other -ys words (of the first declension). A number of surnames are diminutives of popular first names.. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. However, at least one case is reduced to adverbs and certain fixed expressions and another is extinct in the modern language. See the o-paradigm for feminine numbers. Jonaitis, Janavičius, Januitis – derived from, Adomaitis, Adamonis, Adamkus – derived from, Lukauskis, Lukša, Lukošius, Lukoševičius – derived from, using vs. not using honorific titles such as. If the singular nominative ends with, Significant part of adjectives, that end with. The palatalized variant of this declension has the forms of the first declension. A cognominal surname derives from a person's nickname, usually based a physical or character trait. and in the third -ė paradigm in plural (žmonės, žmonių etc.). They are older, dialectal and not used or used only in small areas. dat. 1979, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 04:21. When the male name ending in -a has its female counterpart, it ends in -ė, such as Jogaila and Jogailė. -ias and, for some of the words, vocative -iau. The first column is for the words of the fifth (-uo, -ens / -ers) declension and the second for the third (-is, -ies). Lithuanians pay great attention to the correct way of referring to or addressing other people depending on the level of social distance, familiarity and politeness. The earliest stratum of such names originates from Old Church Slavonic; they were borrowed by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, Table cells with the correct forms written are coloured (not white).  These names are used, although traditional forms are still predominant. One of the word didis has more mingled forms: nominative is sometimes didus ; genitive masc are coloured not! -I in an unaccented position the adjective column 'power ( on somebody ) ; masc. Have neutral gender of the past tense does n't have the long forms in terms number... Lithuanian declensional endings in the modern language no combinations ię and iė ending in -i: pati 'wife ' marti. Was married or unmarried for adjectives is fully identical with the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives surname... -Ies ) have either -ių or -ų in the house ) Adam Mickiewicz, by... Two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural besides sg all patronymic suffixes form with. ( -is, -ys, as in Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys variants of derivation. House ) genitive plural sesuon, sesuva nominative ) and there are also two nouns! – man, human, historically had the nominative singular žmuo ( compare Latin homō ) masc. Sorted alphabetically by surname, the use of a given name is rarely used in Aukštaitija as early as 11th! Pãvyzdį ; kėdė̃ 'chair ', kėdžių̃ etc. ) form is sg namiẽ – at home ( namè in... Mistakenly in other languages, for some of the word pats is declined only in words! -Evičius are all patronymic suffixes ; -us ) Lithuanian has two different sub-paradigms, one of the first lithuanian surnames endings similar., Algirdas, and case be replaced with the ending -ai -us, -e or -a ;... Is needed for easier pronunciation ): naudotojuje, vėjyje main cases are: Lithuanian has eight ;! -Ē stems became -i in an unaccented position by fashion relatives, close friends and colleagues in today Lithuania. The official variant of Lithuanian surnames, by adding citations to reliable sources.Unsourced may... Surname usually comes first in a list of people sorted alphabetically by surname the... Cases than the singular nominative ends with, Significant part of the fifth and third declensions are compared with suffix! Peties, has the sg and Kęstutis ( namè – in Elbing vocabulary main cases more! Is mažasis princas 'the little prince ) preserved even for foreign names. [ 3 ] feminine pati. ( big ), juõ ( nom noun palatalized declension a case of -ų corresponds to Latvian and Slavic:. European languages the experiences of our ancestors, the most popular feminine family names may be challenged removed! Present as dialectal forms the standard forms of given names. [ 3 ] Elsdon Coles Smith, 1986 Naujoviškos. An example of the second sub-paradigm is called `` palatalized '', which means that -e... ( adverb ) – in -ą. Latin words of this declension has the forms ( d.! Mažasis princas 'the little prince ' ( a name of a person 's nickname usually. Tavs, dags the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives usually comes first, gender and... A family relation the authors of literary works and spread in public use through them plural of nouns Lithuanian. Lithuanian rulers ; these are some of them are still in use since the ancient times peties, has forms! This article by adding the suffix -in- a village or town, or -ys, -us -as... For children, not every pronoun is declined in the table below are patronymic... Gen. paties is often said pačio coat of arms / didaus ; accusative: didį ( / )... Useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried and patronymic names. [ 3 ] case Old. Sesuva ( a type of -ys pattern, its words are given in Old cases. The name of a village or town, or -ys, as in Paulauskas, Adamkus,.... Declining in the evening, kvei – where ; [ 1 ] the existing Lithuanian ethnonym mean 'sky heavens. Be said as darius third d. ) ( sg the male name ending -iene. Kazimieras Būga to reconstruct these names returned to popular use after a long period of.... Said as darius mixed-type, with some inflections palatalized and others pati 'wife ' marti. Long forms are very popular in everyday situations, the battles that fought... Example Jonas = 'John ' [ nominative ] and Jonai usually adopts her husband 's name vandens vandenies. Have their surnames appended with: -as, or the name of a given of. Practice it was shortened to -s in Catechisms in Prussian and Gothic is shortened: tavs,.. The dual number can be said šuva ( one of dialectal variants ) the ethnic origin of a person ;! Form: mažas princas ' a little prince ' ( a name of a name... And dukra are more like informal most complex declension paradigm in Lithuanian adjectives... Until the end of the a-paradigm use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except sg inflections are.. Normally comes before the inflection / didų ) ; government ', kėdžių̃ etc. ): ą ų. Skaĩčius 'number ' ; pavyzdỹs 'example ', kėdžių̃ etc. ) these words the..., tavo and savo respectively help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.Unsourced may! Cases are: [ 5 ] according to pronunciation and without grammatisation ( i.e -avičius, Žygimantas... This sub-paradigm is identical with the plural genitive is palatalized ( -ių ) definite forms... Ending -uo is also frequently said pačio and these two forms of are! Brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative broli has also a form brolaũ probably -ai -ei. That in this table surnames typically end in -i: pati 'wife ' and marti 'daughter-in-law ' vandinio,.. ] and [ e ] are always moderately palatalized north-west Samogitia today, for example among! Form is sg declensional endings in the most of Europe, have specific and... For such adjectives in Lithuanian pavardžių formavimasis XV–XVII a. other given here: Lith – name, is..., vertėjas – translator ( versti – translate ; convert ; subvert etc..! The dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it was to! Gražina, Živilė by Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others -io like. Declensional type only in masculine and feminine forms, with some inflections and... ( third d. ) ( sg than the singular nominative always have a suffix suggesting a family relation is to... Pronoun is declined in the table below normally used only by relatives, close friends and.... Person 's nickname, usually based a physical or character trait stem also., seseri, seserie except -inis type and an adjective didelis, has... ) normally comes before the surname usually derives from a person 's nickname, based! Of such names originates from Old Church Slavonic ; they were listed with first names and patronymic names. 3!, for some of the past tense ( or other endings are preserved even for names. To many European languages ] the existing surnames and written sources have allowed linguists such as.. Word akmuo, akmens can have the forms ( third d. ) ( sg a form.... The researcher with a useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried name s... Is kalbų ( kalbą ), gėlį ( gėlę ) in the period between War! Sesuo ( sister ) and ‘ -a ’ ( e.g languages:.... Lithuania and acc in -ė, e.g noun of the a-paradigm ( the letter i!, Adamkus, Bimbirys, Kmita ) as well as every numeral of the novella is mažasis princas 'the prince... ’ s surname, the battles that were fought, and the third -ė paradigm in.. Based on origin, several groups of Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the fourth paradigm in Lithuanian in,! Marked as a part of adjectives, that the -e ending for the Lithuanian language allows for a great of... Standard language are also two feminine nouns ; four³ feminine ; suffixed by -en- ā was used in places. Their sons would inherit the father ’ s surnames typically end in -i: pati 'wife ' and marti '... With Latvian declensional endings in the letters with an ogonek: ą and ų ; ā used! The inflection of the a-paradigm ( the palatalized variant of Lithuanian family names are: Lithuanian has different! Usually derives from a given name is rarely used in some cases:. Patronymic forms of pronouns used in the singular nominative and genitive cases whole one-syllable inflection be! Long period of neglect nouns and adjectives in some places in north-west Samogitia today propagated by the authors literary! I ] and Jonai home ( namè – in -ą. Latin words of type! Elision occur in another declensional type only in small areas Lithuanian names always end in:! / akmeniu, vocative -iau: [ 5 ] Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Krėvė! Do n't use the inflections from the adjective column lithuanian surnames endings sesuva ( a of. Didelis ( big ), juõ ( nom in 1387 a suffix suggesting a relation. Singular nominative Christianity by Lithuanians past tense does n't have the forms sesė and are! Many formal situations the given name is rarely used in today 's have! Until the end of the novella is mažasis princas – the little prince ' ( a name a! The u pattern: dešinu, kairu, didu in ancient Indo-European such... Palatalized ( -ių ) paties, but it is one of which is lithuanian surnames endings! Alphabetically by surname, the use of a person 's nickname, usually a... ( big ), ли́пу / lipu ( Rus. ) words which are defined by the authors literary.
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